Russischer nationalspieler

russischer nationalspieler

9. Juli Am Sonntagabend haben das auch erstmals die russischen Nationalspieler getan. Als sie nach ihrer Rückreise aus Sotschi vor der Moskauer. Russland Nationalelf» Spieler und Trainer von A-Z. von Russland umworben. UNationalspieler Waldemar Anton (22) hat eine Kontaktaufnahme mehr». Die russische Fußballnationalmannschaft (russisch Сборная России по футболу/Sbornaja Rossii po futbolu) ist die Vertretung Russlands im Fußball und wird.

nationalspieler russischer -

Februar 24 Jahre Team: Die Sbornaja geht in der Diskutieren Sie über diesen Artikel. Folgen nicht folgen Gemeinschaftsstandards Diskussion. Aber dort gewann die Sbornaja kein einziges Spiel. Ich habe schon noch sehr, sehr viel Bezug dahin. Alexander Kerschakow ist seit dem 3. Dabei stand man neun Jahre zuvor noch auf dem achten Platz. Umweltministertreffen Kritik an Scheuers Diesel-Kompromiss.

Russia's birth rate is higher than that of most European countries In , in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".

Russia recorded 1,, births, the highest number since , and even exceeding annual births during the period —, with a TFR of about 1.

Vital statistics table below. In August , as the country saw its first demographic growth since the s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach million by , mainly as a result of immigration.

Russia is a multi-national state with over ethnic groups designated as nationalities; the populations of these groups vary enormously, from millions e.

Russian Cossack family in Siberia. Yakuts in Sakha Republic. Northern Caucasus folk costumes: Russia's ethnic groups speak some languages.

Despite its wide distribution, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout the country. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the most widely spoken Slavic language.

Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English, [] one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station [] and is one of the six official languages of the UN.

Russians have practised Orthodox Christianity since the 10th century. According to the historical traditions of the Orthodox Church, Christianity was first brought to the territory of modern Belarus , Russia and Ukraine by Saint Andrew , the first Apostle of Jesus Christ.

The latter events are traditionally referred to as the "baptism of Rus'" Russian: Much of the Russian population, like other Slavic peoples, preserved for centuries a double belief dvoeverie in both indigenous religion and Orthodox Christianity.

At the time of the Revolution , the Russian Orthodox Church was deeply integrated into the autocratic state , enjoying official status.

This was a significant factor that contributed to the Bolshevik attitude to religion and the steps they took to control it.

Bolsheviks consisted of many people with non-Russian, Communist Russians and influential Jewish backgrounds such as Vladimir Lenin , Leon Trotsky , Grigory Zinoviev , Lev Kamenev , Grigori Sokolnikov who were indifferent towards Christianity and based on the writings of German philosopher Karl Marx with Marxism—Leninism as an ideology went on to form the Communist party.

Thus the USSR became one of the first communist states to proclaim, as an ideological objective, the elimination of religion [] and its replacement with universal atheism.

State atheism in the Soviet Union was known in Russian as gosateizm , [] and was based on the ideology of Marxism—Leninism. Marxist—Leninist Atheism has consistently advocated the control, suppression, and elimination of religion.

Within about a year of the revolution, the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from to , 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1, priests were killed.

Many more were persecuted. Currently, there is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only. In the research organization Sreda published Arena Atlas, a detailed enumeration of religious populations and nationalities in Russia, based on a large-sample country-wide survey.

They found that These findings are in line with Pew Research Center 's estimate that Orthodox Christianity, Islam , Judaism , Buddhism , and ethnic religions are recognised as Russia's traditional religions, marking the country's "historical heritage".

Traced back to the Christianization of Kievan Rus' in the 10th century, Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in the country; smaller Christian denominations such as Catholics, Armenian Gregorians and various Protestant churches also exist.

The Russian Orthodox Church was the country's state religion prior to the Revolution and remains the largest religious body in the country.

Easter is the most popular religious holiday in Russia, celebrated by a large segment of the Russian population, including large numbers of those who are non-religious.

More than three-quarters of the Russian population celebrate Easter by making traditional Easter cakes, coloured eggs and paskha.

Islam is the second largest religion in Russia after Russian Orthodoxy. Buddhism is traditional in three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia , Tuva , and Kalmykia.

In cultural and social affairs Vladimir Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Patriarch Kirill of Moscow , head of the Church, endorsed his election in Steven Myers reports, "The church, once heavily repressed, had emerged from the Soviet collapse as one of the most respected institutions Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state.

On April 26, , for the first time, The U. Commission on International Religious Freedom classified Russia as one of the world's worst violators of religious liberty, recommending in its annual report that the U.

The report states, "—it is the sole state to have not only continually intensified its repression of religious freedom since USCIRF commenced monitoring it, but also to have expanded its repressive policies The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens.

Due to the ongoing Russian financial crisis since , major cuts in health spending have resulted in a decline in the quality of service of the state healthcare system.

Waiting times for treatment have increased, and patients have been forced to pay for more services that were previously free.

As of [update] , the average life expectancy in Russia was Deaths mostly occur from preventable causes, including alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents and violent crime.

Since , the year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free. University level education is free, with exceptions.

A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years. In the s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Russian regions, the government launched a program of establishing "federal universities", mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding.

There are over different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. Handicraft , like Dymkovo toy , khokhloma , gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture.

Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan , kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes.

The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha , which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus. Russian cuisine widely uses fish, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey.

Crops of rye , wheat, barley , and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass , beer and vodka drinks.

Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi , borsch , ukha , solyanka and okroshka.

Smetana a heavy sour cream is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki , blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Chicken Kiev , pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively.

Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls golubtsy usually filled with meat. Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions regarding folk music.

Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli , balalaika , zhaleika , and garmoshka. Folk music had a significant influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands , like Melnitsa.

Russian folk songs , as well as patriotic Soviet songs , constitute the bulk of the repertoire of the world-renowned Red Army choir and other popular ensembles.

Russians have many traditions , including the washing in banya , a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna. Many Russian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adapted for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko Ilya Muromets , Sadko and Aleksandr Rou Morozko , Vasilisa the Beautiful.

Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov , made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin , also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity.

Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture.

Apart from fortifications kremlins , the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches with their many domes , often gilded or brightly painted.

Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia since the late 15th century, while the 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral.

After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe.

The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers.

The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival styles. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau , Constructivism , and the Stalin Empire style.

With the change in values imposed by communist ideology , the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the s.

A new anti-religious campaign, launched in , coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.

In Moscow alone losses of — are estimated at over notable buildings including to listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3, — some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas.

In , a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev , condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture, [] and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture.

This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles.

In Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down mostly in rural areas and many were demolished.

Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in , only sixteen remained by ; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in , thirty were closed and six demolished.

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos , the two genres inherited from Byzantium. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek , Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art.

The Russian Academy of Arts was created in [] and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov , Dmitry Levitzky , Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th-century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting.

In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.

In the midth century the Peredvizhniki Wanderers group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions.

Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism , showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II.

The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel , Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin , and Nicholas Roerich.

The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately to The term covers many separate, but inextricably related art movements that occurred at the time, namely neo-primitivism , suprematism , constructivism , rayonism , and Russian Futurism.

Since the s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism. Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War.

Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country. Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina , Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny.

Music in 19th-century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful , who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins , which was musically conservative.

The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era , was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff.

Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes ' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide.

Modern Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal , and in traditions of the Russian bards of the Soviet era, such as Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava.

Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, such as t.

In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment , the development of Russian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin.

By the early 19th century a modern national tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers in Russian history.

This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry , began with Alexander Pushkin , who is considered the founder of the modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare".

Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoyevsky have been described by literary critics as the greatest novelists of all time. By the s, the age of the great novelists was over, and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres.

The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry , when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism.

Russian philosophy blossomed in the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers , who advocated Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles , who insisted on developing Russia as a unique civilization.

The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev , the founders of eurasianism. In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas.

Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev , Sergei Bulgakov , and Vladimir Vernadsky.

Following the Russian Revolution of many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov and Nikolay Berdyayev , while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state.

In the s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. In the late s restrictions on literature were eased, and by the s and s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines.

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following , resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Eisenstein.

Dziga Vertov , whose kino-glaz "film-eye" theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism.

The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity; however, many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, including Chapaev , The Cranes Are Flying , and Ballad of a Soldier.

The s and s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov 's and Leonid Gaidai 's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today.

In —68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar -winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace , which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.

Russian animation dates back to late Russian Empire times. During the Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer.

Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano , Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky.

The late s and s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced.

The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival.

Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation.

While there were few stations or channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and privately owned radio stations and TV channels have appeared.

Censorship and Media freedom in Russia has always been a main theme of Russian media. Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top four for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics.

Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weightlifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players.

Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the Soviet Union national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested.

It is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of [update] , [] and the second-best in the world. KHL is on the 4th place by attendance in Europe.

Bandy , also known as Russian hockey , is another traditionally popular ice sport. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has continuously been one of the most successful teams, winning many world championships.

Association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. The Soviet national team became the first European Champions by winning Euro In and , the Soviet Union won gold at the Olympic football tournament.

The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro , losing only to the eventual champions Spain. In , the Russian national basketball team won the European Basketball Championship.

Larisa Latynina , who currently holds the record for the most gold Olympic medals won by a woman, established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years.

Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing. With the exception of a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold at every Winter Olympics since Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous players, including Maria Sharapova.

In martial arts, Russia produced the sport Sambo and renowned fighters, like Fedor Emelianenko. Chess is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from , Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship almost continuously.

The Winter Olympics were held in Sochi in the south of Russia. In the McLaren Report found evidence of widespread state-sponsored doping and an institutional conspiracy to cover up Russian competitors' positive drug tests.

Formula One is also becoming increasingly popular in Russia. There had only been two Russian Grands Prix in and , but the Russian Grand Prix returned as part of the Formula One season in , as part of a six-year deal.

Russia has the most Olympic medals stripped for doping violations 51 , the most of any country, four times the number of the runner-up, and more than a third of the global total, and athletes caught doping at the Olympics , also the most of any country.

From to , more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a state-sponsored cover-up, [] [] [] [] [] with no indication that the program has ceased since then.

This was the first football World Cup ever held in Eastern Europe , and the first held in Europe since Russia will also host games of the Euro There are seven public holidays in Russia , [] except those always celebrated on Sunday.

Orthodox Christmas falls on January 7, because the Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar , and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Western ones.

Two other major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday. Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over Nazism in the Great Patriotic War.

A huge military parade , hosted by the President of Russia , is annually organised in Moscow on Red Square. Similar parades take place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city or City of Military Glory.

State symbols of Russia include the Byzantine double-headed eagle , combined with St. George of Moscow in the Russian coat of arms. The Russian flag dates from the late Tsardom of Russia period and has been widely used since the time of the Russian Empire.

The Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem , though not the lyrics. The imperial motto God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite!

The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations. The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials.

The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory of Cheburashka is a mascot of the Russian national Olympic team.

Alexander Nevsky , St. Sergius of Radonezh and St. Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's patron saints. Chamomile is the national flower , while birch is the national tree.

The Russian bear is an animal symbol and a national personification of Russia, though this image has a Western origin and Russians themselves have accepted it only fairly recently.

The native Russian national personification is Mother Russia. Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet period, first domestic tourism and then international tourism, fueled by the rich cultural heritage and great natural variety of the country.

Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like the Volga , and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.

In , Russia was visited by The most visited destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and former capitals of the country.

Moscow displays Soviet architecture at its best, along with modern skyscrapers , while St Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North , boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, canals and bridges.

The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia , though a number of other major cities compete for this status, including Novosibirsk , Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod.

The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi , the follow-up host of the Winter Olympics.

The mountains of the Northern Caucasus contain popular ski resorts such as Dombay. This unique lake, the oldest and deepest in the world, has crystal-clear waters and is surrounded by taiga -covered mountains.

Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka with its volcanoes and geysers, Karelia with its lakes and granite rocks, the snowy Altai Mountains , and the wild steppes of Tuva.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Russia disambiguation. Not to be confused with Prussia.

Location of Russia green Crimean peninsula light green [note 1]. Rus' people and Rus' name. Grand Duchy of Moscow. Soviet Union and History of the Soviet Union.

Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. Foreign relations of Russia. List of Russian explorers. Agriculture in Russia and Fishing industry in Russia.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records , Science and technology in Russia , List of Russian scientists , and List of Russian inventors.

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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ethnic groups in Russia. Russian language , Languages of Russia , and List of endangered languages in Russia.

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Russian architecture and List of Russian architects. Russian literature , Russian philosophy , Russian poets , Russian playwrights , Russian novelists , and Russian science fiction and fantasy.

Public holidays in Russia and Cultural icons of Russia. Russia portal Europe portal. Retrieved March 27, Archived from the original on January 18, Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved October 20, Retrieved April 24, Federal State Statistics Service.

Archived from the original on July 28, Retrieved April 5, Retrieved February 23, Retrieved November 2, United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 14 September Retrieved June 25, Retrieved January 31, Russian Embassy, Washington DC. Archived from the original on April 16, Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods".

Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved July 20, Its Rise and Legacy. Journal of World-Systems Research, Vol.

Archived from the original PDF on February 22, Adelman; Cristann Lea Gibson July 1, Contemporary Soviet Military Affairs: Retrieved June 15, A World at Arms: Retrieved November 30, Archived from the original on October 16, Copy code to clipboard.

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Russian Schnapsen or Thousand Schnapsen is a trick-taking game for three players, the aim of which is to score over points to win the game.

It is a variant of the popular Austrian game of Schnapsen. Like its parent, Russian Schnapsen features "marriages" pairs of a King and Queen of the same suit which are worth extra points.

The first dealer is chosen either by drawing lots or by mutual agreement. The dealer rotates clockwise with each hand. Before dealing after shuffling , the deck is cut by the player on the dealer's right.

After cutting, the top part is placed on the table and bottom card is checked by the dealer. Dealing cards is made clockwise, with one card per iteration, starting from the player sitting by left hand from dealer.

During dealing three cards out of deck are put to the stock: Dealing cards is very delicate and typically dealer can be charged with scores fine if not agreed beforehand otherwise.

Dealing cards is counted as failed in next circumstances:. Usually, if dealer is not charged with fine, then same dealer re-deals the deck, otherwise - dealing goes to a next player clockwise.

When playing with four player dealer only serves the deck and holds the stock until bidding is over. Dealer in this case is allowed to see the stock before bidding is over but is strictly disallowed to share whatsoever he knows about its contents.

All three players get seven cards during dealing. In order to make number of cards even, winner of bidding has to give away by one card to both of the opponent players out of his full hand 10 cards , which cards to give away - is the decision up to the bidding winner.

After this every player has eight cards in hand. Bid is number of scores player states he can achieve in this round.

Every game round there has to be a player who has an obligation to get or more scores, the player is determined by bidding round - the player who made the bigger bid wins the bidding round.

After cards are dealt, player next clock-wise after the dealer starts the bidding with points, this player is often called "first hand".

Players after observing their hand cards are taking part in bidding one-by-one strictly clock-wise in order. Only after previous player stated his bid or passed his turn, next player can bid.

When both of opponent player will pass will not make bigger bid , the player who make biggest bid wins the bidding round. It is possible that after first hand player said initial bid of points - both of the opponent players can pass, in this case first hand player has no options and wins the bidding round.

If a player passes their bidding turn, he passes it permanently for this game round and cannot make bid even if the bidding turn comes back again to him, thus he is not taking part in bidding for this round anymore.

Minimum bid increment is 5 points, all bids have to be divisible by 5. The final declaration of points the bidding-winner player is obliged to score during game round can be increased after the stock is observed and cards are given away.

During bidding round players are not allowed to increase the bid over points unless they have a marriage in their hand. If this rule is broken, the player who broke the rule gets a negative number of declared bid and the current game round is skipped.

Russischer Nationalspieler Video

Irrsinn in Russland: Bär übergibt Schiri den Ball

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More presentations by Malte Siemers Passenger. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire , which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east.

Following the Russian Revolution , the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , the world's first constitutionally socialist state.

The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space.

By the end of , the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.

Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in The name Russia is derived from Rus' , a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs.

In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people , Swedish merchants and warriors [39] [40] who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that later became Kievan Rus.

An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia , mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe.

The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is " Russians " in English [42] and rossiyane Russian: There are two Russian words which are commonly translated into English as "Russians".

Translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups. Nomadic pastoralism developed in the Pontic-Caspian steppe beginning in the Chalcolithic.

In classical antiquity , the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Beginning in the 8th century BC, Ancient Greek traders brought their civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria.

Ancient Greek explorers, most notably Pytheas , even went as far as modern day Kaliningrad , on the Baltic Sea.

Romans settled on the western part of the Caspian Sea , where their empire stretched towards the east. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom , a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, [45] was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars.

The ancestors of modern Russians are the Slavic tribes , whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes.

From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia [49] and assimilated the native Finno-Ugric peoples , including the Merya , the Muromians , and the Meshchera.

The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of Varangians , the traders, warriors and settlers from the Baltic Sea region.

Primarily they were Vikings of Scandinavian origin, who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.

In , his successor Oleg ventured south and conquered Kiev , [51] which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazars , founding Kievan Rus'.

Oleg, Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar khaganate and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia.

In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe.

In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs , caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.

The age of feudalism and decentralization was marked by constant in-fighting between members of the Rurik Dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively.

Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.

Ultimately Kievan Rus' disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of —40 [54] that resulted in the destruction of Kiev [55] and the death of about half the population of Rus'.

Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Kingdom of Poland , while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation.

Led by Prince Alexander Nevsky , Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva in , as well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice in , breaking their attempts to colonize the Northern Rus'.

The most powerful state to eventually arise after the destruction of Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow "Muscovy" in the Western chronicles , initially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal.

While still under the domain of the Mongol - Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the Central Rus' in the early 14th century, gradually becoming the leading force in the process of the Rus' lands' reunification and expansion of Russia.

Times remained difficult, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids. Agriculture suffered from the beginning of the Little Ice Age.

As in the rest of Europe, plague was a frequent occurrence between and Moscow gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including formerly strong rivals such as Tver and Novgorod.

He was also the first to take the title "Grand Duke of all the Russias". The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws Sudebnik of , established the first Russian feudal representative body Zemsky Sobor and introduced local self-management into the rural regions.

During his long reign, Ivan the Terrible nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates parts of the disintegrated Golden Horde: Thus, by the end of the 16th century Russia was transformed into a multiethnic , multidenominational and transcontinental state.

However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.

The slave raids of Crimeans , however, did not cease until the late 17th century though the construction of new fortification lines across Southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Line , constantly narrowed the area accessible to incursions.

The death of Ivan's sons marked the end of the ancient Rurik Dynasty in , and in combination with the famine of —03 [69] led to civil war, the rule of pretenders, and foreign intervention during the Time of Troubles in the early 17th century.

In , the Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two national heroes, merchant Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky.

The Romanov Dynasty acceded to the throne in by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis.

Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks. Cossacks were warriors organized into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World.

In , the peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprising in reaction to the social and religious oppression they had been suffering under Polish rule.

Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War. Finally, Ukraine was split along the Dnieper River , leaving the western part, right-bank Ukraine , under Polish rule and the eastern part Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev under Russian rule.

Later, in —71, the Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga Region , but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels.

In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory.

Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian River Routes , and by the midth century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsula , along the Amur River , and on the Pacific coast.

Under Peter the Great , Russia was proclaimed an Empire in and became recognized as a world power. Ruling from to , Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War , forcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles , [71] as well as Estland and Livland , securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade.

Peter the Great's reforms brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia. During this conflict Russia annexed East Prussia for a while and even took Berlin.

She extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of its territories into Russia during the Partitions of Poland , pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe.

As a result of victories over Qajar Iran through the Russo-Persian Wars , by the first half of the 19th century Russia also made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus , forcing the former to irrevocably cede what is nowadays Georgia , Dagestan , Azerbaijan and Armenia to Russia.

At the same time, Russians colonized Alaska and even founded settlements in California, such as Fort Ross. In —, the first Russian circumnavigation was made, later followed by other notable Russian sea exploration voyages.

In , a Russian expedition discovered the continent of Antarctica. In alliances with various European countries, Russia fought against Napoleon 's France.

The officers of the Napoleonic Wars brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia with them and attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt of Between and , about one million people died of Asiatic cholera.

These Great Reforms spurred industrialization and modernized the Russian army, which had successfully liberated Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in the —78 Russo-Turkish War.

The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia. The uprising was put down, but the government was forced to concede major reforms Russian Constitution of , including granting the freedoms of speech and assembly , the legalization of political parties, and the creation of an elected legislative body, the State Duma of the Russian Empire.

The Stolypin agrarian reform led to a massive peasant migration and settlement into Siberia. More than four million settlers arrived in that region between and However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, high casualties , and rumors of corruption and treason.

All this formed the climate for the Russian Revolution of , carried out in two major acts. The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government.

On September 1 14 , , upon a decree of the Provisional Government, the Russian Republic was proclaimed.

An alternative socialist establishment co-existed, the Petrograd Soviet , wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets.

The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country, instead of resolving it. Eventually, the October Revolution , led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin , overthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the Soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first socialist state.

Following the October Revolution, a civil war broke out between the anti-Communist White movement and the new Soviet regime with its Red Army.

The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces.

In the meantime both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror.

By the end of the civil war, Russia's economy and infrastructure were heavily damaged. Following Lenin's death in , a troika was designated to govern the Soviet Union.

However, Joseph Stalin , an elected General Secretary of the Communist Party , managed to suppress all opposition groups within the party and consolidate power in his hands.

Leon Trotsky , the main proponent of world revolution , was exiled from the Soviet Union in , and Stalin's idea of Socialism in One Country became the primary line.

Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a planned economy , industrialisation of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture.

During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps , [82] including many political convicts for their opposition to Stalin's rule; millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.

Under the doctrine of state atheism in the Soviet Union, there was a "government-sponsored program of forced conversion to atheism " conducted by Communists.

As for the Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet authorities sought to control it and, in times of national crisis, to exploit it for the regime's own purposes; but their ultimate goal was to eliminate it.

During the first five years of Soviet power, the Bolsheviks executed 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and over 1, Russian Orthodox priests.

Many others were imprisoned or exiled. Believers were harassed and persecuted. Most seminaries were closed, and the publication of most religious material was prohibited.

By only churches remained open out of about 54, in existence prior to World War I. In August , the Soviet government decided to improve relations with Germany by concluding the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , pledging non-aggression between the two countries and dividing Eastern Europe into their respective spheres of influence.

Although the German army had considerable early success, their attack was halted in the Battle of Moscow. Subsequently, the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of —43, [90] and then in the Battle of Kursk in the summer of Another German failure was the Siege of Leningrad , in which the city was fully blockaded on land between and by German and Finnish forces, and suffered starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendered.

The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater. Dependent socialist governments were installed in the Eastern Bloc satellite states.

The Soviet Union supported revolutionary movements across the world, including the newly formed People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and, later on, the Republic of Cuba.

Significant amounts of Soviet resources were allocated in aid to the other socialist states. After Stalin's death and a short period of collective rule , the new leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced the cult of personality of Stalin and launched the policy of de-Stalinization.

The penal labor system was reformed and many prisoners were released and rehabilitated many of them posthumously.

At the same time, tensions with the United States heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the United States Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba.

Following the ousting of Khrushchev in , another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev became the leader. The era of the s and the early s was later designated as the Era of Stagnation , a period when economic growth slowed and social policies became static.

The Kosygin reform aimed for partial decentralization of the Soviet economy and shifted the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods but was stifled by the conservative Communist leadership.

In , after a Communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces entered that country. The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.

Ultimately, the Soviet Army was withdrawn from Afghanistan in due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerrilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens.

From onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev , who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of glasnost openness and perestroika restructuring in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratise the government.

This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements. Prior to , the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world, [] but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits, and explosive growth in the money supply leading to inflation.

By , economic and political turmoil began to boil over, as the Baltic republics chose to secede from the Soviet Union. On March 17, a referendum was held, in which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of changing the Soviet Union into a renewed federation.

During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including privatization and market and trade liberalization were undertaken, [] including radical changes along the lines of " shock therapy " as recommended by the United States and the International Monetary Fund.

The privatization largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government.

Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight. The s were plagued by armed conflicts in the North Caucasus , both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist insurrections.

From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early s, an intermittent guerrilla war has been fought between the rebel groups and the Russian military.

Terrorist attacks against civilians carried out by separatists, most notably the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school siege , caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention.

Russia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution.

On December 31, , President Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin , who then won the presidential election.

Putin suppressed the Chechen insurgency although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the Northern Caucasus. High oil prices and the initially weak currency followed by increasing domestic demand, consumption, and investments has helped the economy grow for nine straight years, improving the standard of living and increasing Russia's influence on the world stage.

Putin returned to the presidency following the presidential elections , and Medvedev was appointed Prime Minister. In , after President Viktor Yanukovych of Ukraine fled as a result of a revolution , Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy Russian troops to Ukraine.

On March 27 the United Nations General Assembly voted in favor of a non-binding resolution opposing the Russian annexation of Crimea by a vote of member states in favour, 11 against and 58 abstentions.

According to the Constitution of Russia , the country is a federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of state [] and the Prime Minister is the head of government.

The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy , with the federal government composed of three branches:.

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term.

In , Russia was ranked as th of countries in the Democracy Index , compiled by The Economist Intelligence Unit, [] while the World Justice Project , as of [update] , ranked Russia 80th of 99 countries surveyed in terms of rule of law.

The Russian Federation is recognized in international law as a successor state of the former Soviet Union. Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy. As of [update] , it maintains diplomatic relations with countries and has embassies.

The foreign policy is determined by the President and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. As the successor to a former superpower, Russia's geopolitical status has often been debated, particularly in relation to unipolar and multipolar views on the global political system.

While Russia is commonly accepted to be a great power , in recent years it has been characterized by a number of world leaders, [] [] scholars, [] commentators and politicians [] as a currently reinstating or potential superpower.

Russia is one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. The legal basis for EU relations with Russia is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which came into force in The Agreement recalls the parties' shared respect for democracy and human rights, political and economic freedom and commitment to international peace and security.

An important aspect of Russia's relations with the West is the criticism of Russia's political system and human rights management including LGBT rights , media freedom , and reports about killed journalists by Western governments, the mass media and the leading democracy and human rights watchdogs.

In particular, such organisations as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.

The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has called the Freedom in the World report "prefabricated", stating that the human rights issues have been turned into a political weapon in particular by the United States.

The ministry also claims that such organisations as Freedom House and Human Rights Watch use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into "dominant tendencies".

There are also three independent arms of service: As of [update] , the military comprised over 1 million active duty personnel, the fifth largest in the world.

Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world, the second largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines , and the only modern strategic bomber force outside the United States.

The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry , producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported.

In —14, Russia delivered weapons to 56 states and to rebel forces in eastern Ukraine. The Russian government's official military budget is about 2.

The official budget is set to rise to 3. According to the Constitution , the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects , [] including the disputed Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol.

These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council. Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts , each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.

Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.

Russia's territorial expansion was achieved largely in the late 16th century under the Cossack Yermak Timofeyevich during the reign of Ivan the Terrible , at a time when competing city-states in the western regions of Russia had banded together to form one country.

Yermak mustered an army and pushed eastward where he conquered nearly all the lands once belonging to the Mongols , defeating their ruler, Khan Kuchum.

Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources.

The Russian Federation spans 11 time zones. Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast.

The Ural Mountains , rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia.

Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources. Its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water.

Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of the total renewable water resources. Of the country's , rivers, [] the Volga is the most famous, not only because it is the longest river in Europe , but also because of its major role in Russian history.

The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate , which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest.

Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.

Both the strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate.

The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably in Sochi , possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters.

In many regions of East Siberia and the Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons.

Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a semi-arid climate.

Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures.

Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east.

Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia. From north to south the East European Plain , also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra , coniferous forest taiga , mixed and broad-leaf forests , grassland steppe , and semi-desert fringing the Caspian Sea , as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate.

Siberia supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves , [] known as "the lungs of Europe", [] second only to the Amazon Rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs.

There are mammal species and bird species in Russia. A total of animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of and are now protected.

Russia has an upper-middle income mixed economy [] with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas.

Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The country ended with its ninth straight year of growth, but growth has slowed with the decline in the price of oil and gas.

A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue.

This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates.

The economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the Moscow region contributing a very large share of the country's GDP.

The Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce also states that "[c]orruption is one of the biggest problems both Russian and international companies have to deal with.

The Russian central bank announced plans in to free float the Russian ruble in However, the Russian economy began stagnating in late and in combination with the War in Donbass is in danger of entering stagflation, slow growth and high inflation.

The recent decline in the Russian ruble has increased the costs for Russian companies to make interest payments on debt issued in U.

There are many different estimates of the actual cost of corruption. In the s, businessmen had to pay different criminal groups to provide a " krysha " literally, a "roof", i.

Nowadays, this "protective" function is performed by officials. In the end, the Russian population pays for this corruption.

Putin's system is remarkable for its ubiquitous and open merging of the civil service and business, as well as its use of relatives, friends, and acquaintances to benefit from budgetary expenditures and take over state property.

Corporate, property, and land raiding is commonplace. On March 26, , protests against alleged corruption in the federal Russian government took place simultaneously in many cities across the country.

This restoration of agriculture was supported by a credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms that once were Soviet kolkhozes and which still own the significant share of agricultural land.

Since Russia borders three oceans the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific , Russian fishing fleets are a major world fish supplier.

Russia captured 3,, tons of fish in Sprawling from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, Russia has more than a fifth of the world's forests, which makes it the largest forest country in the world.

In recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower. Russia is the 3rd largest electricity producer in the world [] and the 5th largest renewable energy producer , the latter because of the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country.

The Asian part of Russia also features a number of major hydropower stations; however, the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia and the Russian Far East largely remains unexploited.

Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant. Currently the country is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer , [] with all nuclear power in Russia being managed by Rosatom State Corporation.

The sector is rapidly developing, with an aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current In May on a two-day trip to Shanghai, President Putin signed a deal on behalf of Gazprom for the Russian energy giant to supply China with 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year.

Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly.

The company accounts for over 3. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers.

Russia's capital, Moscow, is sometimes called "the port of the five seas", because of its waterway connections to the Baltic, White , Caspian, Azov and Black Seas.

In the country owned 1, merchant marine ships. The world's only fleet of nuclear-powered icebreakers advances the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route between Europe and East Asia.

By total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the United States. Russia has 1, airports, [] the busiest being Sheremetyevo , Domodedovo , and Vnukovo in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St.

Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram.

The total length of metros in Russia is Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in and respectively.

These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and some of them are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition in Russian metros and railways.

Science and technology in Russia blossomed since the Age of Enlightenment , when Peter the Great founded the Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg State University , and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov established the Moscow State University , paving the way for a strong native tradition in learning and innovation.

In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientists and inventors.

The Russian physics school began with Lomonosov who proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the energy conservation law.

Russian discoveries and inventions in physics include the electric arc , electrodynamical Lenz's law , space groups of crystals , photoelectric cell , superfluidity , Cherenkov radiation , electron paramagnetic resonance , heterotransistors and 3D holography.

Lasers and masers were co-invented by Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov , while the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion was introduced by Igor Tamm , Andrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich , leading eventually the modern international ITER project, where Russia is a party.

Since the time of Nikolay Lobachevsky the " Copernicus of Geometry " who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev , the Russian mathematical school became one of the most influential in the world.

In the 20th century Soviet mathematicians, such as Andrey Kolmogorov , Israel Gelfand , and Sergey Sobolev , made major contributions to various areas of mathematics.

Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table , the main framework of modern chemistry. Aleksandr Butlerov was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure , playing a central role in organic chemistry.

Russian biologists include Dmitry Ivanovsky who discovered viruses, Ivan Pavlov who was the first to experiment with the classical conditioning , and Ilya Mechnikov who was a pioneer researcher of the immune system and probiotics.

Russian inventions include arc welding by Nikolay Benardos , further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov , Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers.

Gleb Kotelnikov invented the knapsack parachute , while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit. Alexander Lodygin and Pavel Yablochkov were pioneers of electric lighting , and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first three-phase electric power systems, widely used today.

Sergei Lebedev invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber. The first ternary computer , Setun , was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov.

In the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers , inspired by the fundamental works of Nikolai Zhukovsky , Sergei Chaplygin and others, designed many hundreds of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs Construction Bureaus that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation.

Famous Russian aircraft include the civilian Tu -series, Su and MiG fighter aircraft, Ka and Mi -series helicopters; many Russian aircraft models are on the list of most produced aircraft in history.

With all these achievements, however, since the late Soviet era Russia was lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to energy conservation and consumer goods production.

The crisis of the s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and a brain drain migration from Russia.

In the s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and innovation.

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev formulated top priorities for the country's technological development:. The country is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the first serial mobile nuclear plant in the world.

Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky , the father of theoretical astronautics.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union , some government-funded space exploration programs, including the Buran space shuttle program, were cancelled or delayed, while participation of the Russian space industry in commercial activities and international cooperation intensified.

Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher. Roscosmos is also developing the Federation spacecraft, to replace the aging Soyuz, it could also take potential crewed mission to lunar orbit as early as In Russia, approximately 70 per cent of drinking water comes from surface water and 30 per cent from groundwater.

In , water supply systems had a total capacity of 90 million cubic metres a day. The average residential water use was litres per capita per day.

The water utilities sector is one of the largest industries in Russia serving the entire Russian population. In all, different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders.

Russia's population peaked at ,, in , just before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It began to experience a rapid decline starting in the mids.

In , Russia recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years, with total growth of 10, The first recorded spaniel in Russia was a black Cocker Spaniel owned by hunting enthusiast Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich towards the end of the 19th century.

Because of its noble connections, spaniels of various breeds were imported to St. Some were used for hunting, but the smaller spaniels were not of much use in Russian bird hunting due to the weather and terrain conditions.

It was at the beginning of the 20th century that selective breeding began for longer legged spaniels; specifically importing Springer Spaniels to create a rather mixed Russian Spaniel.

By the late s there were a variety of spaniels in Moscow, Leningrad and Sverdlovsk that did not fit any specific spaniel breed standard, but were not yet standardised into the modern Russian Spaniel.

The popularity of the breed in Russia increased after the early s, with Moscow dog shows since that time annually including between and Russian Spaniels, which qualifies the breed as one of the most popular, along with the Irish Setter.

In , the Russian Spaniel Club was set up in the United States to increase the knowledge of the breed outside Russia and to enable owners to register their dogs.

In order to become recognised fully by the American Kennel Club, they must first compete in a Miscellaneous Class. The requirements to compete in that class are to demonstrate a following by having a minimum of active members in a national breed club, a population of to dogs, with third generation pedigrees and for all dogs in those pedigrees to be of the same breed, a distribution across twenty or more states, and the breed standard must be reviewed and approved by the AKC.

Typical stays in that class are between one and three years, and the national club of the breed must have held seminars, shows and judges workshops prior to being fully recognised.

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